The phagocyte cellular chemiluminescence response provides insight into some specific diseases like bacterial and viral infections, Diabetes mellitus, arthritis, cancer, etc. Cellular chemiluminescence is also a very sensitive assay for determining the toxicity of environmental or occupational agents on phagocytic cells. Insufficiency and hyperactivity of oxygen-dependent phagocytosis of granulocytes can easily be detected by using cellular chemiluminescence.
Cellular luminescence has a very low intensity and is thus difficult to detect. To enhance the chemiluminescent effect substrates that are known to react with reactive oxygen metabolites can be added and the light-emission can be detected. Luminol and Lucigenin are commonly used substances for these kind of assays:
- Luminol reacts with H2O2 and as a result the electronically-activated product emits photons at a wavelength of 425 nm.
- Lucigenin reacts with O2- that causes emission of light at 470 nm.
This emitted light can be monitored bywith temperature control. The light quantity can be further increased by adding an effective catalysator, such as the enzyme Myeloperoxidase (MPO), that is found in granulocytes and that produces native light emission. MPO reacts with H2O2, O2 and Cl to produce HOCl (hypochlorous acid) that destroys invaded foreign bodies.