Our solutions for SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) research help you to automate and standardize repetitive steps around the development and performance of in vitro microplate assays. We are ready to support your research by offering various technologies and system solutions that can help you to develop new treatments and vaccines against COVID-19 faster.

Solutions from Berthold Technologies supporting COVID-19 Research

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The detection of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in the blood of individuals and the associated infections is very valuable for both, research and diagnostics. In this Application Note we describe the automation of the Virotech SARS-CoV-2 IgG ELISA with the Crocodile 5-in-one ELISA miniWorkstation, which offers a convenient solution for the detection of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2.

Download Application Note


The Pseudovirus Neutralization Assay is frequently used in virology since it is a useful tool for measuring the viral infection rate and hence, the effectiveness of antibodies or drugs that block the virus from entering cells. It has become a hot topic in SARS-CoV-2 research recently. Learn more about this method and about the instruments required to measure it.

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Basic and Preclinical Research

In order to understand the mechanisms of infection and immunity required to control COVID-19, a broad range of technologies is needed.

Microplate Readers from Berthold Technologies are flexible instruments and suitable for many relevant methods, such as:

  • Luminescent reporter viruses, including Pseudovirus Neutralization Assays.
  • Interaction studies using BRET, FRET and TR-FRET.
  • ELISA of viral antigens or host antibodies.

Automated Systems from Berthold Technologies allow unattended automation of most microplate-based assays, such as:

  • ELISA of viral antigens or host antibodies.
  • Chemiluminescence- or fluorescence- based immunoassays.
  • Assessment of immune response using ELISpot.

Development of tests, drugs and vaccines

Development of vaccines, drugs and other therapeutic tools involves many different tasks. From immunogen characterizations to evaluation of the immune response, screening of compounds, viral antigens and antibodies. Our microplate readers provide high flexibility and performance for all your detection needs. In addition, we provide automated all-in-one ELISA systems that allow you to walk away from your tedious immunoassays and concentrate on other important activities.

Such projects may also involve using cell-based assays for the screening of antibodies, antigens or compounds. This often requires washing and dispensing large quantities of cells growing in microplates. Our high-throughput microplate washers can be used for the gentle wash of adherent cells and, thanks to its built-in stacker, can wash batches of 30 plates, quickly and efficiently.

Microplate Washers

Manufacturing & QC

Once an ELISA test has been developed, tested and optimized it is necessary to manufacture the kits to be delivered to laboratories around the globe. This requires the coating of microplates with the antigens or antibodies of interest for example, SARS-CoV-2 antigens to make a serological test. Plate coating involves dispensing and washing large numbers of microplates to manufacture the ELISA test.

The Zoom HT Plate Coating System is a high-throughput washer and dispenser which can coat or block up to 250 plates/hour and wash up to 150 plates/hour thanks to its integrated stackers with single-rail design.

Zoom HT Plate Coating System


Quality Control is of the utmost importance in any manufacturing process and the concentration of the product must be verified. This can be done using absorbance, fluorescence or luminescence and can be reliably measured using Berthold Technologies microplate readers.


Many tests used to study the presence of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in blood are based on the ELISA principle. While performing an ELISA takes considerably more time than a rapid test, some ELISA tests are quantitative, and can be more accurate.

Automated ELISA systems reduce hands-on time and human error when performing an ELISA. The Crocodile 5-in-one is a simple solution to automate ELISA in low-throughput laboratories.

For laboratories manually performing ELISA, the Apollo 11 is a reliable ELISA reader which uses a long-life LED light source.

ELISA workflow solutions

Recommended instruments and solutions

Tristar 3 Multimode Reader

High performance and flexibility for interaction and reporter assays

  • Advanced detection modes: Absorbance, Fluorescence (including FRET), Luminescence (including BRET) and Time-Resolved Fluorescence (including TR-FRET/HTRF®).
  • Uncompromised performance of all detection modes: ONE-4-ALL optics combining the stability and user-friendliness of a multimodal optical system with the sensitivity and versatility of dedicated optical devices.
  • Best-in-class luminescence performance
  • Ultra-fast and precise injection: up to 3 cell-friendly injectors with JET injection technology
  • Meeting your regulatory needs: compliant with 21 CFR part 11 (with MikroWin Advanced optional software)

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Zoom HT Microplate Washer

A high throughput washer/dispenser for plate washing and ELISA plate coating.

  • High-throughput washing with integrated stackers and a single-rail design. Very fast, up to 150 plates an hour (3 washes/plate).
  • Cell-friendly because of angled dispense tips and highly configurable wash parameters.
  • Low maintenance due to unique self-emptying liquid discharge system reduces maintenance.
  • Biohazard waste management with the automatic addition of a decontamination solution.
  • Flexibility as it can be configured with up to 4 different wash buffers.

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Crocodile miniWorkstation

Simple walk-away automation for ELISA and other absorbance microplate based assays

  • Ultra-compact design: the Crocodile is the smallest ELISA workstation on the market at only 26.5 cm wide.
  • Convenient and simple ELISA automation for laboratories with low to medium throughput.
  • All-in-one system includes washing, dispensing, incubation, shaking and absorbance reading.
  • Open system software that adapts to both your commercial and your custom assays
  • 21 CFR part 11 compliance with optional MikroWin Advanced software.

Learn more

Apollo 11 ELISA Reader

A robust and reliable ELISA reader for all absorbance applications in the visible range

  • Long-life light source using a LED to avoid replacement of expensive light bulbs.
  • Optical flexibility using 405, 450, 492 and 595 nm preinstalled filters plus 2 empty positions for custom filters.
  • Auto-control which performs an auto-check and auto-calibration of the optics and electronics before every measurement.
  • Precision & repeatability due to the precise mechanics, quality optics and auto-control which guarantees unrivalled repeatability of measurements
  • 21 CFR part 11 compliance with optional MikroWin Advanced software.

Learn more


Please find some selected papers to learn how our instrument solutions have been used in Coronavirus research.


Research on SARS-CoV-2

Author and yearTitleInstrument
Gasser et al. (2021)

Major role of IgM in the neutralizing activity of convalescent plasma against SARS-CoV-2

TriStar² LB 942 Multimode Microplate Reader
Li et al. (2021)

Corilagin inhibits SARS-CoV-2 replication by targeting viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase

Centro XS³ LB 960 Microplate Luminometer
Ozono et al. (2021)

SARS-CoV-2 D614G spike mutation increases entry efficiency with enhanced ACE2-binding affinity

Centro LB 960 Microplate Luminometer
Bestle et al. (2020)

TMPRSS2 and furin are both essential for proteolytic activation of SARS-CoV-2 in human airway cells

Centro LB 960 Microplate Luminometer
Burbelo et al. (2020)

Sensitivity in Detection of Antibodies to Nucleocapsid and Spike Proteins of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 in Patients With Coronavirus Disease 2019

Centro LB 960 Microplate Luminometer
Burbelo et al. (2020)

Detection of Nucleocapsid Antibody to SARS-CoV-2 is More Sensitive than Antibody to Spike Protein in COVID-19 Patients

Centro LB 960 Microplate Luminometer
Conzelmann et al. (2020)

An enzyme-based immunodetection assay to quantify SARS-CoV-2 infection

Orion II LB LB 965 Microplate Luminometer
Conzelmann et al. (2020)

Salivary extracellular vesicles inhibit Zika virus but not SARS-CoV-2 infection

Orion II LB LB 965 Microplate Luminometer
Cortese et al. (2020)

Integrative Imaging Reveals SARS-CoV-2-Induced Reshaping of Subcellular Morphologies

Mithras LB 940 Multimode Microplate Reader
Ding et al. (2020)

Antibody Binding to SARS-CoV-2 S Glycoprotein Correlates with but Does Not Predict Neutralization

TriStar LB 941 Multimode Microplate Reader
Elledge et al. (2020)

Engineering luminescent biosensors for point-of-care SARS-CoV-2 antibody detection

Junior LB 9509 Portable Luminometer
Keller et al. (2020)

SARS-CoV-2–specific T cells are rapidly expanded for therapeutic use and target conserved regions of the membrane protein

Centro Microplate Luminometer
Lampasone et al. (2020)

Antibody response to multiple antigens of SARS-CoV-2 in patients with diabetes: an observational cohort study

Centro Microplate Luminometer
Lu et al. (2020)

Real-Time Conformational Dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 Spikes on Virus Particles

Tristar Multimode Microplate Reader
Li et al. (2020)

SARS-CoV-2 and Three Related Coronaviruses Utilize Multiple ACE2 Orthologs and Are Potently Blocked by an Improved ACE2-Ig

Tristar 5 Multimode Microplate Reader
Prévost et al. (2020)

Cross-Sectional Evaluation of Humoral Responses against SARS-CoV-2 Spike

TriStar² LB 942 Multimode Microplate Reader
Schöler et al. (2020)

A Novel In-Cell ELISA Assay Allows Rapid and Automated Quantification of SARS-CoV-2 to Analyze Neutralizing Antibodies and Antiviral Compounds

Mithras² LB 943 Multimode Microplate Reader
Temmam et al. (2020)

Absence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in cats and dogs in close contact with a cluster of COVID-19 patients in a veterinary campus

Centro XS³ Microplate Luminometer
Wang et al. (2020)

A human monoclonal antibody blocking SARS-CoV-2 infection

Centro Microplate Luminometer
Yamamoto et al. (2020)

The Anticoagulant Nafamostat Potently Inhibits SARS-CoV-2 S Protein-Mediated Fusion in a Cell Fusion Assay System and Viral Infection In Vitro in a Cell-Type-Dependent Manner

Centro XS Microplate Luminometer
Zhang et al. (2020)

α-Ketoamides as Broad-Spectrum Inhibitors of Coronavirus and Enterovirus Replication: Structure-Based Design, Synthesis, and Activity Assessment

Mithras LB 940 Multimode Microplate Reader


Research on other coronaviruses

Author and yearTitleInstrument
Yoon et al. (2019)

Design, Synthesis, and Anti-RNA Virus Activity of 6′-Fluorinated-Aristeromycin Analogues

Mithras LB 940 Multimode Microplate Reader
Łoczechin et al. (2019)

Functional Carbon Quantum Dots as Medical Countermeasures to Human Coronavirus

Tristar LB 941 Multimode Microplate Reader
Widjaja et al. (2019)

Towards a solution to MERS: protective human monoclonal antibodies targeting different domains and functions of the MERS-coronavirus spike glycoprotein

Centro Microplate Luminometer
de Wilde et al. (2015)

A Kinome-Wide Small Interfering RNA Screen Identifies Proviral and Antiviral Host Factors in Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Replication, Including Double-Stranded RNA-Activated Protein Kinase and Early Secretory Pathway Proteins

Mithras LB 940 Multimode Microplate Reader

We are committed to keeping you informed on our efforts throughout the course of this pandemic to minimize disruptions to workflow and operations of our customers. We are here to help reduce the spread of COVID-19 and its impact on public health. Learn more about our efforts in these areas here.