Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) is a physical phenomenon, that requires close proximity of a donor molecule and an acceptor molecule (1-10 nm typically). As a result of excitation by light that only the donor can absorb, the donor dye changes into an excited state and transfers energy without the emission of a photon to the acceptor dye. If the acceptor dye is fluorescent, it will emit light, typically at a much longer wavelength than the donor dye can emit itself. Today, FRET techniques are getting employed in a wide variety of applications, such as receptor/ligand studies, membrane fusion assays, fluorogenic protease assays or immunoassays.

The diversity of methods and fluorophores available makes flexibility in fluorescence detection a must. Thus, our microplate readers enable you to not just detect Fluorescence Intensity (FI) but other assay technologies like FRET, TRF, HTRF® or Fluorescence Polarization (FP) as well.

Compare Fluorescence Microplate Readers

 Tristar 3Tristar 5TriStar² LB 942TriStar² S LB 942Mithras² LB 943Mithras LB 940
Detectors 
  • Low-noise photomultiplier tube in dual mode
  • Photodiode for absorbance
 
 
  • 2 Low-noise photomultiplier tube in dual mode
  • Photodiode for absorbance
 
 
  • Low-noise photomultiplier tube in single photon counting mode
  • Photodiode for absorbance
 
 
  • Low-noise photomultiplier tube in dual mode
  • Photodiode for absorbance
 
 
  • 2 Low-noise photomultiplier tube in single photon counting mode
  • 1 Ultralow-noise photomultiplier tube in single photon counting mode
  • Photodiode for absorbance
 
 
  • 2 Low-noise photomultiplier tube in single photon counting mode
  • Photodiode for absorbance
 
Absorbance (Vis)      
Absorbance (UV)      
Luminescence      
Fluorescence      
TRF      
FP      
AlphaScreen      
 Tristar 3Tristar 5TriStar² LB 942TriStar² S LB 942Mithras² LB 943Mithras LB 940
Optical systemSingle path for all detection technologiesSingle path for all detection technologiesSingle path for all detection technologiesSingle path for all detection technologiesDedicated optical path for each detection modeDedicated optical path for each detection mode
Light source 
  • Xenon flash lamp
 
 
  • Xenon flash lamp
  • Laser diode (680 nm)
 
 
  • Halogen lamp
 
 
  • Xenon flash lamp
 
 
  • Halogen lamp
  • Xenon flash lamp
  • Laser diode (680 nm)
 
 
  • Halogen lamp
  • Xenon flash lamp
  • Laser diode (680 nm)
 
Spectral range Absorbance200-1000 nm200-1000 nm340-1000 nm200-1000 nm200-1000 nm230-1000 nm
Spectral range Luminescence

Standard: 280-650 nm

Extended: 280-850 nm

Standard: 280-650 nm

Extended: 280-850 nm
280-650 nm

Standard: 280-650 nm

Extended: 280-850 nm
280-850 nm280-850 nm
Spectral range FluorescenceExcitation: 230-1000 nm
Emission: Standard 280-650 nm, Extended 280-850 nm
Excitation: 230-1000 nm
Emission: Standard 280-650 nm, Extended 280-850 nm
Excitation: 230-1000 nm
Emission: 280-850 nm
Excitation: 230-1000 nm
Emission: 280-850 nm
Excitation: 230-1000 nm
Emission: 280-850 nm
Excitation: 230-1000 nm
Emission: 280-850 nm
Z-adjustment    Z-independent opticsZ-independent optics
Bottom reading      
Filters      
Monochromator for Abs. and Fluor. Excitation      
Monochromator for Fluor. Emission      
Filter identificationManualManualManualManualAutomaticManual
Wavelength scanning

 

 Absorbance, Fluor. Excit.

 
Monochromator stray light 10-6 10-610-6 
Monochromator bandwidth 4-22 nm 4-22 nm6-22 nm 
 Tristar 3Tristar 5TriStar² LB 942TriStar² S LB 942Mithras² LB 943Mithras LB 940
InjectorsUp to 3 JET injectors with frictionless operationUp to 3 JET injectors with frictionless operationUp to 3 JET injectors with frictionless operationUp to 3 JET injectors with frictionless operationUp to 4 JET injectors with frictionless operationUp to 4 JET injectors with frictionless operation
Injector volume10-100 µL in 1 µL steps10-100 µL in 1 µL steps10-100 µL in 1 µL steps10-100 µL in 1 µL steps10-100 µL in 1 µL steps10-100 µL in 1 µL steps
Injector accuracyBetter than 2% across the entire volume rangeBetter than 2% across the entire volume rangeBetter than 2% across the entire volume rangeBetter than 2% across the entire volume rangeBetter than 2% across the entire volume rangeBetter than 2% across the entire volume range
Injector precisionBetter than 2% across the entire volume rangeBetter than 2% across the entire volume rangeBetter than 2% across the entire volume rangeBetter than 2% across the entire volume rangeBetter than 2% across the entire volume rangeBetter than 2% across the entire volume range
 Tristar 3Tristar 5TriStar² LB 942

TriStar² S LB 942

Mithras² LB 943Mithras LB 940
Microplate formats6- to 384-well6- to 384-well6- to 384-well6- to 384-well6- to 1536-well6- to 1536-well
Plate height adjustment3 different frames depending on plate type3 different frames depending on plate type3 different frames depending on plate type3 different frames depending on plate typeAutomaticAutomatic
Additional sample formats (optional) 
  • µDrop plate for microvolumes
  • Adapter for cuvettes
  • Adapter for petri dishes
  • Adapter for Terasaki plates
 
 
  • µDrop plate for microvolumes
  • Adapter for cuvettes
  • Adapter for petri dishes
  • Adapter for Terasaki plates
 
 
  • µDrop plate for microvolumes
  • Adapter for cuvettes
  • Adapter for petri dishes
  • Adapter for Terasaki plates
 
 
  • µDrop plate for microvolumes
  • Adapter for cuvettes
  • Adapter for petri dishes
  • Adapter for Terasaki plates
 
 
  • µDrop plate for microvolumes
  • Adapter for cuvettes
  • Adapter for petri dishes
  • Adapter for Terasaki plates
 
 
  • µDrop plate for microvolumes
  • Adapter for cuvettes
  • Adapter for petri dishes
  • Adapter for Terasaki plates
 
Optional Microplate Stacker      
 Tristar 3Tristar 5TriStar² LB 942TriStar² S LB 942Mithras² LB 943Mithras LB 940
ShakingLinear, orbital, double orbital, with selectable speed and diameterLinear, orbital, double orbital, with selectable speed and diameterLinear, orbital, double orbital, with selectable speed and diameterLinear, orbital, double orbital, with selectable speed and diameterLinear, orbital, double orbital, with selectable speed and diameterLinear, orbital, double orbital, with selectable speed and diameter
Temperature controlFrom ambient +5° to 45° CFrom ambient +5° to 45° CFrom ambient +5° to 45° CFrom ambient +5° to 45° CFrom ambient +5° to 45° CFrom ambient +5° to 45° C
Gas connection      
 Tristar 3Tristar 5TriStar² LB 942TriStar² S LB 942Mithras² LB 943Mithras LB 940
Absorbance precisionBetter than 0.6%Better than 0.6%Better than 0.6%Better than 0.6%Better than 0.6%Better than 0.6%
Absorbance accuracyBetter than 2%Better than 2%Better than 2%Better than 2%Better than 2%N.A.
Luminescence sensitivity<6 amol (0.03 pM) ATP/well (96-well plate)<6 amol (0.03 pM) ATP/well (96-well plate)<6 amol (0.03 pM) ATP/well (96-well plate)<6 amol (0.03 pM) ATP/well (96-well plate)<2 amol (0.01 pM) ATP/well (96-well plate)<6 amol (0.03 pM) ATP/well (96-well plate)
Fluorescence sensitivity<7 amol (0.35 pM) Fluorescein (384sv plate)<7 amol (0.35 pM) Fluorescein (384sv plate)<0.3 fmol (1.5 pM) Fluorescein (96-well plate)<0.3 fmol (1.5 pM) Fluorescein (96-well plate)<0.2 fmol (1 pM) Fluorescein (96-well plate)<0.3 fmol (1.5 pM) Fluorescein (96-well plate)
TRF sensitivity35 amol Eu (96-well plate)5 amol Eu (96-well plate) <10 amol (50 fM) Eu (96-well plate)<2 amol (10 fM) Eu (96-well plate)<2 amol (10 fM) Eu (96-well plate)
FP performance   N.A.<4 mPN.A.
Crosstalk10-610-610-610-610-610-6
Dynamic range>6 orders of magnitude
0-3.5 OD
>6 orders of magnitude
0-3.5 OD
>6 orders of magnitude
0-3.5 OD
>6 orders of magnitude
0-3.5 OD
>6 orders of magnitude
0-3.5 OD
>6 orders of magnitude
0-3.5 OD

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