Our solutions for SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) research help you to automate and standardize repetitive steps around the development and performance of in vitro microplate assays. We are ready to support your research by offering various technologies and system solutions that can help you to develop new treatments and vaccines against COVID-19 faster.

Solutions from Berthold Technologies supporting COVID-19 Research

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The detection of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in the blood of individuals and the associated infections is very valuable for both, research and diagnostics. In this Application Note we describe the automation of the Virotech SARS-CoV-2 IgG ELISA with the Crocodile 5-in-one ELISA miniWorkstation, which offers a convenient solution for the detection of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2.

Download Application Note


The Pseudovirus Neutralization Assay is frequently used in virology since it is a useful tool for measuring the viral infection rate and hence, the effectiveness of antibodies or drugs that block the virus from entering cells. It has become a hot topic in SARS-CoV-2 research recently. Learn more about this method and about the instruments required to measure it.

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Basic and Preclinical Research

In order to understand the mechanisms of infection and immunity required to control COVID-19, a broad range of technologies is needed.

Microplate Readers from Berthold Technologies are flexible instruments and suitable for many relevant methods, such as:

  • Luminescent reporter viruses, including Pseudovirus Neutralization Assays.
  • Interaction studies using BRET, FRET and TR-FRET.
  • ELISA of viral antigens or host antibodies.

Automated Systems from Berthold Technologies allow unattended automation of most microplate-based assays, such as:

  • ELISA of viral antigens or host antibodies.
  • Chemiluminescence- or fluorescence- based immunoassays.
  • Assessment of immune response using ELISpot.

Development of tests, drugs and vaccines

Development of vaccines, drugs and other therapeutic tools involves many different tasks, from immunogen characterization to evaluation of the immune response or screening of compounds, viral antigens or antibodies. Our microplate readers provide high flexibility and performance for all your detection needs. In addition, we provide automated all-in-one ELISA systems that allow you to walk away from your tedious immunoassays and concentrate on other important activities.

Such projects may also involve using cell-based assays for the screening of antibodies, antigens or compounds. This often requires washing and dispensing large quantities of cells growing in microplates. Our high-throughput microplate washers can be used for the gentle wash of adherent cells and, thanks to its built-in stacker, can wash batches of 30 plates, quickly and efficiently.

Microplate Washers

Manufacturing & QC

Once an ELISA test has been developed, tested and optimized, it is necessary to manufacture the kits to be deployed in laboratories around the globe. This requires the coating of microplates with the antigens or antibodies of interest, for example, SARS-CoV-2 antigens to make a serological test. Plate coating involves dispensing and washing large numbers of microplates.

The Zoom HT Plate Coating System is a high-throughput washer and dispenser which, thanks to its integrated stackers with single-rail design, can coat or block up to 250 plates/hour, and wash up to 150 plates/hour (3 washes/plate).

Zoom HT Plate Coating System


Quality Control is of utmost importance in any manufacturing process. The concentration of the product can be verified using absorbance, fluorescence or luminescence, which may be reliably measured using our microplate readers.


Many tests used to study the presence of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in blood are based on the ELISA principle. While performing an ELISA takes considerably more time than a rapid test, some ELISA tests are quantitative, and hence more informative.

Automated ELISA systems reduce hands-on time and human error when performing an ELISA. The Crocodile 5-in-one is a simple solution to automate ELISA in low-throughput laboratories.

For laboratories manually performing ELISA, the Apollo is a reliable ELISA reader which can measure a 96-well microplate in less than 6 seconds.

ELISA workflow solutions

Recommended instruments and solutions

Tristar 5 Multimode Reader

High performance and flexibility for interaction and reporter assays

  • Advanced detection modes: Absorbance, Fluorescence (including FRET), Luminescence (including BRET), Time-Resolved Fluorescence (including TR-FRET/HTRF®) and Fluorescence Polarisation
  • Uncompromised performance of all detection modes: ONE-4-ALL optics combining the stability and user-friendliness of a multimodal optical system with the sensitivity and versatility of dedicated optical devices.
  • Flexibility and sensitivity: FlexTech optics that allow you to freely combine filters and variable-bandwidth monochromators.
  • Best-in-class luminescence performance
  • Ultra-fast and precise injection: up to 3 cell-friendly injectors with JET injection technology
  • Meeting your regulatory needs: compliant with 21 CFR part 11 (with MikroWin Advanced optional software)

Learn more

Zoom HT Microplate Washer

High throughput washer-dispenser for cell washing, ELISA coating and more.

  • High-throughput washing: integrated stackers and single-rail design: up to 150 plates/h (3 washes/plate)
  • Cell-friendly: angled dispense tips and highly configurable wash parameters
  • Low maintenance: unique self-emptying liquid discharge system reduces maintenance
  • Biohazard waste management: automatic addition of a decontamination solution
  • Flexibility: handles up to 4 different wash buffers

Learn more

Crocodile miniWorkstation

Simple walk-away automation for ELISA and other microplate-based assays

  • Ultra-compact design: smallest ELISA workstation on the market. Only 26.5 cm wide.
  • Convenient: simple ELISA automation for laboratories with low to medium throughput
  • All-in-one system: Washing, dispensing, incubation, shaking and absorbance reading
  • Open system software: adapts to both, your commercial and your custom assays
  • 21 CFR part 11 compliance: with MikroWin Advanced (optional software)

Learn more

Apollo ELISA Reader

Robust and reliable ELISA reader for all absorbance applications in the visible range

  • Intuitive standalone operation: the intuitive 7‘’ colour touchscreen operation enables you to quickly set up your plate and analyse your samples without the need for a separate computer.

  • Wavelength range: 340 to 750 nm covers a broad range of applications.

  • Fast measurement: read your plate in just 6 seconds (fast mode).

  • Optical flexibility: 405, 450, 492 and 630 nm filters preinstalled, plus 4 empty positions for custom filters
  • Precision & repeatability: precise mechanics, quality optics and auto-control guarantee unrivalled repeatability of measurements

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Please find some selected papers to learn how our instrument solutions have been used in SARS-CoV-2 research.

Author and yearTitleInstrument
Batista et al. (2022)

Plastic Antibodies Mimicking the ACE2 Receptor for Selective Binding of SARS‐CoV‐2 Spike

Orion II Microplate Luminometer (replaced by Centro Microplate Luminometer)
Wu et al. (2022)

Short-Term Instantaneous Prophylaxis and Efficient Treatment Against SARS-CoV-2 in hACE2 Mice Conferred by an Intranasal Nanobody (Nb22)

NightOWL II In vivo Imaging System
Tauzin et al. (2022)

Evolution of Anti-RBD IgG Avidity following SARS-CoV-2 Infection

Tristar2 LB 942

(replaced by Tristar 3 Multimode Reader)

Paniskaki et al. (2022)

Immune Response in Moderate to Critical Breakthrough COVID-19 Infection After mRNA Vaccination

Centro Microplate Luminometer
Zhao et al. (2022)

5-Iodotubercidin inhibits SARS-CoV-2 RNA synthesis

Centro Microplate Luminometer
Tabata et al. (2021)

Convergent use of phosphatidic acid for hepatitis C virus and SARS-CoV-2 replication organelle formation

Mithras LB 940 Multimode Reader 

(replaced by Tristar 5 Multimode Reader)

Pfafenrot et al. (2021)

Inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus proliferation by designer antisense-circRNAs

Centro Microplate Luminometer
Zhao et al. (2021)

2-((1H-indol-3-yl)thio)-N-phenyl-acetamides: SARS-CoV-2 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase inhibitors

Centro XS Microplate Luminometer
Mathieu et al. (2021)

A Bioluminescent 3CLPro Activity Assay to Monitor SARS-CoV-2 Replication and Identify Inhibitors

Mithras LB 940 Multimode Reader

(replaced by Tristar 5 Multimode Reader)

Gong et al. (2021)

Contribution of single mutations to selected SARS-CoV-2 emerging variants spike antigenicity

Tristar² LB 942 Multimode Reader

(replaced by Tristar 3 Multimode Reader)

Stanojevic et al. (2021)

Spike-directed vaccination elicits robust spike-specific T-cell response, including to mutant strains

Centro Microplate Luminometer
Berguido et al. (2021)

Serological Detection of SARS-CoV-2 Antibodies in Naturally-Infected Mink and Other Experimentally-Infected Animals

Centro Microplate Luminometer
Wu et al. (2021)

A potent bispecific nanobody protects hACE2 mice against SARS-CoV-2 infection via intranasal administration

NightOWL II In vivo Imaging System
Woudenbeg et al. (2021)

Humoral immunity to SARS-CoV-2 and seasonal coronaviruses in children and adults in north-eastern France

Zoom HT Microplate Washer and Mithras² Multimode Reader

(replaced by Tristar 5 Multimode Reader)

Borobia et al. (2021)

Immunogenicity and reactogenicity of BNT162b2 booster in ChAdOx1-S-primed participants (CombiVacS): a multicentre, open-label, randomised, controlled, phase 2 trial

Centro Microplate Luminometer
Kinoshita et al. (2021)

Robust Antibody and T Cell Responses to SARS-CoV-2 in Patients with Antibody Deficiency

Centro Microplate Luminometer
Therrien et al. (2021)

Multicenter Evaluation of the Clinical Performance and the Neutralizing Antibody Activity Prediction Properties of 10 High-Throughput Serological Assays Used in Clinical Laboratories

Tristar² LB 942 Multimode Reader

(replaced by Tristar 3 Multimode Reader)

Sanders et al. (2021)

SARS-CoV-2 requires cholesterol for viral entry and pathological syncytia formation

Tristar² LB 942 Multimode Reader

(replaced by Tristar 3 Multimode Reader)

Plaper et al. (2021)

Coiled-coil heterodimers with increased stability for cellular regulation and sensing SARS-CoV-2 spike protein-mediated cell fusion

Orion II LB 965 Microplate Luminometer  (replaced by Centro Microplate Luminometer)
Simon et al. (2021)

Prognostic Value of Bioactive Adrenomedullin in Critically Ill Patients with COVID-19 in Germany: An Observational Cohort Study

Centro Microplate Luminometer
Zhao et al. (2021)

A cell-based assay to discover inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 RNA dependent RNA polymerase

Centro XS Microplate Luminometer
Wang et al. (2021)

A conserved immunogenic and vulnerable site on the coronavirus spike protein delineated by cross-reactive monoclonal antibodies

Centro Microplate Luminometer
Gasser et al. (2021)

Major role of IgM in the neutralizing activity of convalescent plasma against SARS-CoV-2

TriStar² LB 942 Multimode Reader

(replaced by Tristar 3 Multimode Reader)

Li et al. (2021)

Corilagin inhibits SARS-CoV-2 replication by targeting viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase

Centro XS Microplate Luminometer
Ozono et al. (2021)

SARS-CoV-2 D614G spike mutation increases entry efficiency with enhanced ACE2-binding affinity

Centro Microplate Luminometer
Anna et al. (2020)

High seroprevalence but short-lived immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection in Paris

Zoom HT Plate Washer and 

Mithras² Multimode Reader

(replaced by Tristar 5 Multimode Reader)

Bestle et al. (2020)

TMPRSS2 and furin are both essential for proteolytic activation of SARS-CoV-2 in human airway cells

Centro Microplate Luminometer
Burbelo et al. (2020)

Sensitivity in Detection of Antibodies to Nucleocapsid and Spike Proteins of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 in Patients With Coronavirus Disease 2019

Centro Microplate Luminometer
Burbelo et al. (2020)

Detection of Nucleocapsid Antibody to SARS-CoV-2 is More Sensitive than Antibody to Spike Protein in COVID-19 Patients

Centro Microplate Luminometer
Conzelmann et al. (2020)

An enzyme-based immunodetection assay to quantify SARS-CoV-2 infection

Orion II LB 965 Microplate Luminometer  (replaced by Centro Microplate Luminometer)
Conzelmann et al. (2020)

Salivary extracellular vesicles inhibit Zika virus but not SARS-CoV-2 infection

Orion II LB 965 Microplate Luminometer  (replaced by Centro Microplate Luminometer)
Cortese et al. (2020)

Integrative Imaging Reveals SARS-CoV-2-Induced Reshaping of Subcellular Morphologies

Mithras LB 940 Multimode Reader

(replaced by Tristar 5 Multimode Reader)

Ding et al. (2020)

Antibody Binding to SARS-CoV-2 S Glycoprotein Correlates with but Does Not Predict Neutralization

TriStar LB 941 Multimode Reader

(replaced by Tristar 3 Multimode Reader)

Elledge et al. (2020)

Engineering luminescent biosensors for point-of-care SARS-CoV-2 antibody detection

Junior LB 9509 Portable Luminometer
Keller et al. (2020)

SARS-CoV-2–specific T cells are rapidly expanded for therapeutic use and target conserved regions of the membrane protein

Centro Microplate Luminometer
Lampasone et al. (2020)

Antibody response to multiple antigens of SARS-CoV-2 in patients with diabetes: an observational cohort study

Centro Microplate Luminometer
Lu et al. (2020)

Real-Time Conformational Dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 Spikes on Virus Particles

Tristar Multimode Reader
Li et al. (2020)

SARS-CoV-2 and Three Related Coronaviruses Utilize Multiple ACE2 Orthologs and Are Potently Blocked by an Improved ACE2-Ig

Tristar 5 Multimode Reader
Prévost et al. (2020)

Cross-Sectional Evaluation of Humoral Responses against SARS-CoV-2 Spike

TriStar² LB 942 Multimode Reader

(replaced by Tristar 3 Multimode Reader)

Schöler et al. (2020)

A Novel In-Cell ELISA Assay Allows Rapid and Automated Quantification of SARS-CoV-2 to Analyze Neutralizing Antibodies and Antiviral Compounds

Mithras² LB 943 Multimode Reader

(replaced by Tristar 5 Multimode Reader)

Temmam et al. (2020)

Absence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in cats and dogs in close contact with a cluster of COVID-19 patients in a veterinary campus

Centro XS Microplate Luminometer
Wang et al. (2020)

A human monoclonal antibody blocking SARS-CoV-2 infection

Centro Microplate Luminometer
Yamamoto et al. (2020)

The Anticoagulant Nafamostat Potently Inhibits SARS-CoV-2 S Protein-Mediated Fusion in a Cell Fusion Assay System and Viral Infection In Vitro in a Cell-Type-Dependent Manner

Centro XS Microplate Luminometer
Zhang et al. (2020)

α-Ketoamides as Broad-Spectrum Inhibitors of Coronavirus and Enterovirus Replication: Structure-Based Design, Synthesis, and Activity Assessment

Mithras LB 940 Multimode Reader

(replaced by Tristar 5 Multimode Reader)

We are committed to keeping you informed on our efforts throughout the course of this pandemic to minimize disruption to the work and operations of our customers and to help reduce the spread of COVID-19 and its impact on public health. Learn more about our efforts in these areas.